Backhoe Loader: The Definitive Guide And Operation
The backhoe loader is a single unit consisting of three construction equipment. We also call it as “Two Busy.” During construction, the operator can change the working end by simply turning the seat. The main job of the backhoe loader is to excavate the ditch to arrange the pipes and underground cables, lay a foundation for the building and establish a drainage system.
The main reason for compact backhoe loader to appear on all sites is that various projects require excavation and handling of dirt. Many other tools can do the same thing, but the backhoe loader can greatly improve efficiency. At the same time, compared with large single-function equipment (such as crawler excavators), front loader backhoe is more compact. And they can move around on various construction sites and even run on the road.
Although some small wheel loaders and excavator equipment may be smaller than backhoe loaders, they can save a lot of time and money if the contractor is carrying out both excavation and loading operations.
A backhoe loader includes powertrain, loading end, front end loader backhoe and stable foot. Each device is designed for a specific type of work. On a typical construction site, the excavator operator will need to use all three components to complete the job.
The core structure of the backhoe loader is the powertrain. It includes a turbocharged diesel engine, deep wheel tires and a cab with driver controls (steering wheel, brakes, etc.).
Loaders can perform many different tasks. You can think of it as a large coffee spoon. It is generally not used for excavation, but we operate it to pick up and carry large amounts of loose material. In addition, operators usually use it to push the soil like a plow or to level the ground. The operator can control the loader while driving the tractor.
Front end loader backhoe
Front end loader backhoe (Excavator) is the main tool for backhoe loaders. We control it to dig hard, hard materials (often soil) or to lift heavy objects (such as sewer boxes and culverts ). The excavator can lift these materials and stack them on the side of the hole. In short, an excavator is an extremely powerful huge arm or finger. It consists of three parts: a boom, an arm, and a bucket.
The stable foot is very important for the safe operation of backhoe loaders. When a tractor loader backhoe is digging, the stable foot can relieve the pressure for the ground. On the other hand, the load or downward pressure from digging will damage tires, and the entire backhoe loader will bounce up without a stable foot.
In terms of structure, there are two types of loader backhoe: with side shifting frame and without side shifting frame.
The main feature of the first one is that the operator can move the excavation device sideways to carry out special site operations. It has a lower center of gravity in the transportation state, which is conducive to loading and transportation.
The disadvantages are: due to the limitation of the structure, most of the supporting feet are straight, and the distance between the two supporting points is small, so the stability of the tractor loader backhoe is very poor during excavation.
This kind of backhoe loader focuses on loading, which is more widely used in Europe.
The second front end loader backhoe
Safe operation technology
#1. Before excavating the loader, the bucket mouth and legs of the loading bucket should be fixed to the ground so that the front and rear wheels are slightly off the ground and the level of the fuselage is maintained to improve the mechanical stability.
Before excavating work, the bucket should be turned over so that the bucket is facing the ground, and the front wheel is slightly off the ground, stepping on and locking the brake pedal, and then extending the legs to keep the rear wheel off the ground and maintain the horizontal position.
#2. If the boom is suddenly stopped in the middle of the boom, the impact force caused by its inertia will damage the excavation device and damage the stability of the machine and cause a tripping accident.
During operation, the joystick should be stable and must not move abruptly; it must not be braked midway when the boom is lowered. High-speed gears must not be used during excavation. The rotation should be smooth and must not be impacted and used to tamper the sides of the groove.
The buffer block at the rear end of the boom should be kept intact; if it is damaged, it should be repaired before use. When shifting, the excavating device should be in the intermediate transport state, the legs should be folded, and the lifting arm can be lifted.
#3. Before loading, the swivel mechanism of the excavating device should be placed in the middle position and fixed with a full plate. The low gear should be used during the loading process.
The float position of the valve should not be used when the bucket lift arm is lifted. The hydraulic control system’s distribution valve has the first four valves and the rear four valves.
The first four valves operate the legs, lifting arms and loading buckets, etc., for the leg extension and loading operations; the rear four valves operate the bucket, swing, and move.
Arms and handles for swinging and digging operations. Mechanical power performance and hydraulic system capabilities are not allowed or possible for simultaneous loading and excavation operations.
#4. When the first four valves are working, the rear four valves must not work at the same time. In the travel or work, in addition to the cab outside, backhoe loaders are prohibited anywhere or take the stand personnel.
#5. The general excavator loader uses the wheeled tractor as the main machine, and the loading and unloading devices are added before and after, so that the mechanical length and weight are increased. Therefore, high-speed or sharp turns should be avoided during driving to prevent accidents. Do not slide in neutral when going downhill. When the hydraulic piston rod of the bucket and the handle is kept in the fully extended position, the bucket can be brought close to the boom, and the excavating device is in the shortest state, which is advantageous for traveling. When driving, the legs should be fully retracted, the excavating device should be fixed firmly, the loading device should be lowered, and the bucket and bucket hydraulic piston rod should be fully extended.
#6. After converting into a backhoe loader, the weight of the wheeled tractor has increased a lot. In order to reduce the damage of the tire under heavy load, the rear wheel should be away from the ground during parking. If you need to park for a long time, prop up the legs to make the rear wheels far from the ground.